The Manichaean communities in Turfan (in modern-day Xinjiang, China) produced numerous texts in many languages, including Sogdian, an eastern Middle Iranian language. The present work is an edition and literary-critical study of the longest continuous Manichaean text in Sogdian, known as the Āzandnāmē, or Parable-Book. The Parable-Book preserves parts of three parables which illuminate various aspects of Manichaean teaching by means of a narrative followed by an explanation. A new and expanded edition of the Sogdian text, with English translation and philological commentary, forms the first part of this study.
Along with sermons, hymns, and confessionals, parables were one of the major genres of non-canonical texts produced by Manichaeans in Central Asian communities, surviving in Middle Persian, Parthian, and Old Turkic, as well as Sogdian. In the second part of this study, a new approach to the study of Manichaean parables is presented, taking into account their intertextuality as part of a genre that can only exist in interdependence on all other genres of Manichaean literature. This approach allows new light to be shed on the text of the Āzandnāmē while also investigating how and for which purposes the parables were produced and used.
This work is intended for specialists of Manichaeism and/or Sogdian philology, as well as those with interests in Iranian philology or religions in Central Asia more generally.
- M. Alram: “Ein Schatzfund des Hunnen-Königs Mihirakula”
- G. Asatrian: “Middle Iranian Lexical Archaisms in Armenian Dialects”
- H.R. Baghbidi: “Three Etymological Notes”
- C.G. Cereti: “A Short Note on MHDA 38”
- J. Cheung: “On the Origin of the Terms “Afghan” & “Pashtun” (Again)”
- C.A. Ciancaglini: “Phonology, Etymology and Transcription Issues of Middle Persian Final Sequences ‹-lg› and ‹-lkꞌ›”
- I. Colditz: “Another Fragment of the “Parable on the Female Hearer Xybrʾ”?”
- M. Dandamayev: “Indian Soldiers in Achaemenid Babylonia”
- A. de Jong: “The Women Who Witnessed Zoroaster’s Birth”
- D. Durkin-Meisterernst: “Yima’s anādruxti-“
- E. Filippone: “On the Meaning of Avestan nāuuiia– and Pahlavi *nāydāg“
- Ph. Gignoux: “Sur les noms de personnes et quelques particularités linguistiques d’une nouvelle collection privée de parchemins pehlevis”
- R. Gyselen: “Formules moyen-perses et monogrammes sassanides”
- A. Hintze: “The Advance of the Daēnā: The Vištāsp Yašt and an Obscure Word in the Hāδōxt Nask”
- H. Humbach: “Zarathushtra and the Balance”
- J. Josephson: “The Pahlavi Psalter as a Translation”
- J. Kellens: “Les Gâthâs dites de Zarathusthra”
- G. Lazard: “Les racines de la langue persane”
- P. Lecoq: “Le -a final en vieux perse”
- C. Leurini: “The Virgins and the Bride: Matt. 25:1 in the Manichaean Middle Persian Fragment M36”
- P.B. Lurje: “More on Sogdian Versification: Translated and Original Compositions”
- M. Macuch: “A Legal Controversy from the Sasanian Period in a Late Pahlavi Rivāyat Text”
- M. Maggi: “Annotations on the Book of Zambasta, IV: Ronald E. Emmerick’s Notes”
- E. Morano: “The Jackals and the Elephant: A Manichaean Sogdian Tale in Manichaean Script. With an Appendix with Corrections to Previously Edited Fragments of Tales“
- É. Pirart: “Les Soleils de l’Avesta”
- A. Piras: “X˅arǝnah– and the Garlands. Notes about the Avestan and Manichaean Yima“
- E. Provasi: “Some Notes on Sogdian Phonology: Prothetic Aleph and Labialised Velars”
- Ch. Reck: “Form and Emptiness: A Fragment of a Sogdian Version of the Heart Sutra?”
- A.V. Rossi: “Ten Years of Achaemenid Philology: Old Persian &
Achaemenid Elamite 2006-2016”
- G. Scarcia: “Alla ricerca di un Ur-Farhâd: Hercules patiens, magnetico signor dottore, scalpellino, feldmaresciallo mecenate?”
- R. Schmitt: “Der Flußgott Oxos in der iranischen Anthroponymie”
- M. Schwartz: “An Achaemenid Position, and Gathic Composition:
OPers. *grasta-(pati-), OAv. grə̄hma-, and PIE √gʰres“
- Sh. Shaked: “Zoroastrian Views on Suffering”
- N. Sims-Williams: “The Name of the Kushan Goddess Ομμα”
- P.O. Skjærvø: “Khotanese Land Purchase Deeds”
- D. Weber: “Bemerkungen zu einigen Personennamen in den neuen Dokumenten aus Tabaristan”
- G. Windfuhr: “The Enigmatic kurušag Ewe that Nursed Infant Zarathushtra, and the Precession of the Equinoxes”
- E. Yarshater: “Tāti Dialects”
- Y. Yoshida: “A Manichaean Middle Persian Fragment Preserved in the Kyōushooku Library, Osaka, Japan”
- P. Zieme: “Ein altuigurisches Fragment zur manichäischen Ethik”
Wiesehöfer, Josef & Sabine Müller (eds.). 2017. Parthika. Greek and Roman authors’ views of the Arsacid Empire (Classica et Orientalia 15). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
Established in the third century BC, the multi-cultural and multi-lingual Arsacid Empire became Rome’s major opponent in the East from the first century BC to its end in the third century AD. According to a Roman idea, the orbis was evenly divided between the Parthians and the Romans. However, in the Arsacid Empire oral tradition prevailed and, for a long time, there was no Arsacid historiography concerning perception, reception and interpretation. Therefore, Greco-Roman views and images of the Parthians, Arsacids and their Empire predominated.
Focusing on literary depictions in ancient Greek and Roman literature and examining stereotypes, this volume brings together twelve papers on Greco-Roman perceptions and images of the Arsacid Empire. Part I consists of eight papers primarily concerned with re-assessments of Apollodorus of Artemita and Isidorus of Charax regarding their value as source of information on the Arsacid Empire. Part II contains four papers dealing with the images of the Arsacid Empire in the works of Josephus, Trogus-Justin, Tacitus and Arrian, viewed against their respective socio-political and cultural background.
With a history of use extending back to Vedic texts of the second millennium BC, derivations of the name Mithra appear in the Roman Empire, across Sasanian Persia, and in the Kushan Empire of southern Afghanistan and northern India during the first millennium AD. Even today, this name has a place in Yazidi and Zoroastrian religion. But what connection have Mihr in Persia, Miiro in Kushan Bactria, and Mithras in the Roman Empire to one another?
Myths on the Origin of Language or on the Plurality of Languages
08.02-09.02.2017, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin
Session 1: The Tower of Babel
- Hindy Najman: “The origin of language and the Tower of Babel”
- Florentina Geller: “The Tower of Babel from parabiblical sources”
Session 2: Ancient Greece and Rome
- Filippomaria Pontani: “Greek and Roman materials”
- Comments by Glenn Most.
Session 3: Iran and India
- Shervin Farridnejad: “The Language of the Gods: Some Reflections on the Origin of the Language in Zoroastrianism”
- Roy Tzohar: “Language originated in dreams: Why Indian Buddhists do not have (almost) any myths about the creation of Languages”
- Comments by Sonja Brentjes
Session 4: China and Inner Asia
- Wolfgang Behr: “Some Ideas on the Origin of Language in Late Imperial China,” with a few words on early China”
- Mårten Söderblom Saarela: “Accounts of the invention of scripts in Inner Asia”
- Comments by Dagmar Schäfer
About the working group:
This working group brings together around a dozen historians and philologists with diverse kinds of linguistic expertise to discuss the relation between plurilingualism and the creation and reception of monolingual and plurilingual texts in various Eurasian societies. Through joint readings and translation the group explores how the text is affected by its origin in a plurilingual society and, conversely, the effect plurilingualism has on reading practices and on a “polyglot’s” understanding of the text (its concepts and ideals). In the past – as much as in the present – the majority of people in the world, and most probably most elite communities, were enmeshed in plurilingual practices. Elites from India to the Central Asia plains, Bengali Zamindars, Parsi businessmen, and scholarly travellers and the politically privileged inhabitants around the Mediterranean or the East Asian seas used two or more languages on a daily basis. Plurilingualism was widespread and a common response to the phenomenon of great linguistic diversity, not necessarily in the sense of language mastery, but rather in the form of effective negotiation of the immediate exigencies of communication. Seeking to better understand this dynamic, the seminar investigates topics such as the impact of filtering information through varied languages; the interplay between declarative and procedural knowledge; methods and means of classification; covert translations and covert multilingualism in monolingual texts; and scholarly ideals regarding reading, writing, and linguistic media, be they purportedly perfect or original languages or newly minted would-be rational or universal languages.
Threads of Continuity Focuses on the philosophy and cultur of the ancient Zoroastrian faith from its origins i Central Asia, tracing a geographical and chronological continum till the present. This philosophy became a part of the lived heritage of the Zoroastrian community — both in India and Iran.Of dpecial interest are the cross-cultural influences of the comunity in India. To highlight these, Gujarat and the Deccan will be examined in detail for the first time.A part of this compendium also studies the contribution of the community to the making of modern India. The programme envisaged, attempts to explain the Zoroastrian philodophy of a sacred thread linking all creation.
Islamic Alternatives are the proceedings of a symposium which was held in April 2014 within the framework of a research project entitled The Khāksār Order between Ahl-e Ḥaqq and Shiite Sufi Order, funded by the German Research Foundation.
The tradition and belief system of the Khāksār is closely connected to several cultural and religious traditions across a vast geographical area in the Orient: the territory of Persianate societies, which might also be called ‘the territory of wandering dervishes’. The extensive historical and cultural relations and associations, the similarities between the Khāksār Order and the Futuwwa tradition or religious communities (such as the Ahl-e Ḥaqq (Yārsān) and Bektashi order in different geographical territories), the relationship between this order and Dervish groups in Pakistan and Central Asia on the one hand and its connection with the official orthodox Shia on the other hand are the main topics dealt with in the present book.
The commonalities and cultural relations of these numerous and diverse cultural traditions as well as the heterodox movements in this region are so substantial that understanding the related aspects of each helps us gain a deeper knowledge of the whole subject matter. This symposium and the present proceedings attempt to gather as many specialists of these diverse but associated themes as possible in order to achieve a better understanding of these concepts.
- Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi: “New Remarks on Secrecy and Concealment in Early Imāmī Shiʿism: the Case of khatm al-nubuwwa – Aspects of Twelver Shiʿi Imamology XII
- Mohsen Zakeri: “From Futuwwa to Mystic Political Thought: – The Caliph al-Nāṣir li-Dīn Allāh and Abū Ḥafṣ Suhrawardī’s Theory of Government
Ahl-e Ḥaqq (Yāresān)
- Philip G. Kreyenbroek: “Some Remarks on the Early History of the Ahl-e Ḥaqq”
- Martin van Bruinessen: “Between Dersim and Dālahū – Reflections on Kurdish Alevism and the Ahl-e Ḥaqq Religion
- Yiannis Kanakis: “Yāresān Religious Concepts and Ritual Repertoires as Elements of Larger Net-works of Socio-Political ‘Heterodoxy’ – Some Thoughts on Yāresān , Shiite and Qizilbash/Bektashi Sources and Symbolism
- Jürgen Wasim Frembgen: “Beyond Muslim and Hindu – Sacred Spaces in the Thar Desert of Pakistan
Alexandre Papas: “Dog of God: Animality and Wildness among Dervishes”
Thierry Zarcone: “Sacred Stones in Qalandariyya and Bektashism”Khāksār
Mehran Afshari: “Quṭb al-Dīn Ḥaydar-e Tūnī and his Connection to the Ḥaydariyya and Khāksāriyya”
Shahrokh Raei: “Some Recent Issues and Challenges in the Khāksār Order”
- Razia Sultanova: “Female Folk Sufism in the Central Asian Space-Time Continuum”
Center for Iran, Balkans and Central European Studies
Bulgarian National Library “St, Cyril and Methodius’’
Sofia University ‘’St. Kliment Ohridski’’
23-24 February 2017
Center for Iran, Balkans and Central European Studies in partnership with the Cyril and Methodius National Library of Bulgaria, the “St. Kliment Ohridski” Sofia University, and Allameh Tabataba’i University are going to convene the international conference on “Persian Manuscripts in the Balkans and Central Europe”. The conference will be held in Sofia, with the contributions of scholars and researchers from 16 countries, expert in codicology. Scope of the topics to be discussed in this conference includes: Persian manuscripts; Persian documents; manuscripts about Iran in other languages; documents about Iran in other languages; and exploring Eastern manuscripts. Allameh Tabataba’i University (ATU) will publish the approved papers. Along with the conference, a workshop on “Codicology” will also be held.
- Akbar Irani “Mirase Maktub, Twenty-three years in the revival of Iranian culture and Civilization”
- Shervin Farridnejad: “Zoroastrian Manuscripts in Classical New Persian. The Manuscripts of Ṣad Dar in Central European Libraries: A Work in Progress”
- Davood Esparham: “Advantages and disadvantages of different methods of editing manuscripts”
- Mohammad Hassan Hassanzadeh Niri: “ Catalogues of Persian Manuscripts in Turkey“
- Iván Szántó: A Kashmiri Manuscript of the Shahname of Ferdowsi in Budapest”
- Shiva Mihan: “An unidentified Timurid Manuscript: the Musibat-nama of ‘Attar Nishapuri from Prince Baysunghur’s library”
- Zahra Parsapour: “Ghanun Al- Adab a treasure from Asia minor”
- Dariush Zolfaghari: “The importance of rhetoric in edition of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh”
- Maryam Mavadda: “Âdâb Al-Nesvân , Verses In Writing Of The ¼ Aqayed Al-Nesâ’,“
- Zohre Allahyari Dastjerdi: “Tradition of making collection and anthology in Persian language by focus on index of manuscript”
- Nigar Gozalova/Akram Bagirov: “On Bahman-Mirza’s Azerbaijani Collection”
- Fariba Jabbari: “Maqazi Al-Nabi Verse narrative of the life of Prophet”
- Katerina Venedikova: “Persian texts and Persian elements in manuscripts and epigraphic monuments from the Ottoman times”
- Alireza Hoseini: “Parvardeie khial, a Manuscript from Mahmood Mirza Qajar”
- Mahmood Heidari: “Omdatol Bolaqa va Eddatol Fosaha, A manuscript from Rashid aldin Vatvat”
- Elham Malekzadeh: “The geography of the Caucasus, Almanak, survivor from the era of the Naseraldin King of Qajar”
- Yashar Abdolselamoghlu: “Story of occupation of Bulgaria by Ottomans- Edris Bitlisi“
- Namir Karahalilovic: “An Overview of the Persian Manuscript Collections in Bosnia-Herzegovina”
- Nermin Hodzic: “A Copy of the “Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya” from Gazi Husrev-Beg Library in Sarajevo”
- Ahmed Zildzic: “Two Copies of the Bahjat al-Tawarikh in the Balkans”
- Saeid Abedpour: “Tradition of Masnavi-khani in Bosnia-Herzegovina”
- Sabaheta Gačanin,: “Poetic Manuscripts of Islamic Canon as Cultural Memory”
- Miklos Sarkozy: “Persian Manuscripts in the Oriental Collection of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences“
- Mojdeh Mohammadi: “Persian Manuscript in Hungarian Academy of Science”
- Saeed Safari: “The introduction to Persian manuscripts in the Central Library of the University of Belgrade”
- Tatjana Pai -Vukic: “Persian Manuscripts in Croatian Collections”
- Stoyanka Kenderova: “Persian book in the library of Osman Pazvantoglu in Vidin / 1837”
- Nematollah Iranzadeh: “A manuscript from Vahid Tabrizi in Bulgarian National Library”
- Ivo Panov: “Diwan-e Hafez Manuscripts in National Library”
- Elisaveta Mousakova: “The Illumination of Manuscript Catalogues“
- Nona Petkova: “Accepting and Respecting the Traditions of Others – Examples of Coexistence“
- Morteza Nouraei: “The Evaluation of Iranian studies through Ottoman Turkish Documents preserved in the National Library of Sofia- Bulgaria”
- Anka Stoilova: “The work with manuscript fragments before their cataloguing”
- Hatije Berber: “Presentation of textbooks for teaching Persian language in Ryushdiye schools”
- Sheyda Rahimi: “An Overview of the Persian Manuscript Catalogue in Bulgarian National Library”
This volume, presented to John R. Hinnells on his 75th Birthday, focuses on the interface between material and spiritual wealth, a theme that runs across many religions and cultures and that incorporates a major strand of John R. Hinnells’s particular fascination with the Zoroastrians of ancient and modern times, and his more general interest in the positive and life-affirming aspects of religious traditions across many domains. The volume includes seventeen studies by leading scholars exploring ideas of and attitudes to material wealth and its use for promoting spiritual benefits in Zoroastrian, Mithraic, Christian, Buddhist and Islamic traditions.
Including twelve English, French, and German papers originally presented at a colloquium convened by Jean Kellens at the Collège de France (2013), this volume addresses a range of issues relating to Persian religion at the time of the Achaemenid Empire (550-330 BCE). Moving away from the reductive question whether the Achaemenid kings were Zoroastrians or not, the contributors have tried to focus either on newly identified or recently published sources (Central Asian archaeological finds, Elamite texts and seal impressions from the Persepolis Fortification Archive, Aramaic texts from Bactria, the Persepolis Bronze Plaque), or on current (and ongoing) debates such as the question of the spread of the so-called long liturgy to western Iran. In doing, different perspectives are chosen: whereas some have stressed the Iranian or Indo-Iranian tradition, others have pointed out the importance of the Elamite and Assyro-Babylonian contexts. At the same time, the volume shows a broad agreement in its insistence on the essential position of primary sources, problematic as they may be, and on the important role the Achaemenid rulers and the imperial project played in the evolution of Iranian religion.